**V. Faraday's Law of Induction**

And its Many Applications to PEMF Therapy

****

**Next Piece of the Puzzle (Faraday) - Faraday's Law of Induction**

Physicists learned a LOT about electricity and magnetism in the 19th century.

We already talked about one of the biggest discoveries - that electric currents can create magnetic fields.

And once scientists figured that out, they want to know if the opposite was also true.

Could magnetic fields create or induce an electric current? Many physicists designed experiments to detect electric currents induced by magnetic fields.

But they kept coming up empty, that is until two physicists Joseph Henry and Michael Faraday both figured out what was happening.

It turns out magnetic fields DO induce electric currents but only under certain circumstances when the magnetic field is changing with time.

When Faraday discovered that magnetic fields induced electric currents he got kinda lucky. He set up a current through a coil of wire so that it generates a magnetic field and then he watched to see if that magnetic field induce a current in a second coil of wire.... And it Didn't.

But then he noticed something weird, when he turned the current on and off in the first coil, there was a brief spike of current in the second coil, but only when the current was changing from off to on and back again. He realized he had been looking for the wrong thing. A constant magnetic field DID NOT cause an electric Current in a loop of wire,

But then he noticed something weird, when he turned the current on and off in the first coil, there was a brief spike of current in the second coil, but only when the current was changing from off to on and back again. He realized he had been looking for the wrong thing. A constant magnetic field DID NOT cause an electric Current in a loop of wire,

**only a CHANGING magnetic field did!**This is called this Faraday's law of induction and it says that A changing magnetic field will induce an emf in a loop of wire which then drives the current in the wire.

Let's Start with EMF

Let's Start with EMF

Ok, so back to Faraday and how EMFs are induced...

So now Faraday knew that when a magnetic field changed with time, it induced an emf in a loop of wire (which causes current to flow).

He saw that switching the current on and off induced a emf or current to flow. This is essentially changing the magnetic field strength as it goes from 0 to B and from B back to 0.

So now Faraday knew that when a magnetic field changed with time, it induced an emf in a loop of wire (which causes current to flow).

He saw that switching the current on and off induced a emf or current to flow. This is essentially changing the magnetic field strength as it goes from 0 to B and from B back to 0.

You can also change the strength of the magnetic field through a coil by moving a magnet really fast in a coil of wire, and it is THIS changing magnetic field creates an emf that drives the current in the wire.

In Ancient Greece it is say they used Lodestones to heal and found it more beneficial to move the lodestones/magnets to produce a greater affect.

But if the magnet is stationary of not moving, no current is created.

In Ancient Greece it is say they used Lodestones to heal and found it more beneficial to move the lodestones/magnets to produce a greater affect.

But if the magnet is stationary of not moving, no current is created.

**There are 3 different ways we can induce EMF**

1) The first way we just saw, by chaning the strength of the magnetic field - B. Moving a magnet up and down in a coil... or like Faraday discovered, switching the current on and off in a loop of wire, etc.

As we'll see, This is how PEMF devices changes the magnetic field. It is rhythmic switching on and off of an electric current in current loops creates changing magnetic fields that induce currents in the body (more on this later).

But you can also create an EMF in two more ways...

2) Changing the Area of the loop or coil - A.

If the loop is bigger there will be a larger magnetic field running through it.

3) Angle between the magnetic field and the face of the loop. Effectively this is changing the area also.

Flux = B*A*Cos0. If the loop is perpendicular to the field, then the flux = B*A

**1) EMF -**

Electromotive Force (Voltage or Driving Force in a Circuit)

Electromotive Force (Voltage or Driving Force in a Circuit)

An EMF is an electromotive force with same units as voltage and it is the driving force that moves charges in a wire.

An EMF applied to a conducting wire drives electrons that creates a current in the wire. So like batteries, changing magnetic fields can power electronic devices AND your cells!!

---

There are really two forces involved in driving current around a circuit: the source,

**F,**which is ordinarily confined to one portion of the loop (a battery say), and an electromotive force which serves to smooth out the flow and communicate the influence of the source to distant parts of the circuit.

F (main driving force of the circuit) can be:

- a battery which is a chemical force - Cell Membrane
- A piezpelectric crystal mechanical pressure converted to an electrical impulse (BONES ARE PIEZOELECTRIC and Connective Tissue Matrix is Viscoelectric)
- A thermocouple where temperature gradient does the work (Body is Isothermo, so no thermodynamic energy harnessing effects)
- A photoelectric cell like solar panels where LIGHT does the job. (Body can capture

light using molecules such as Melanin, Chlorophyll, Hemoglobin, Porphyrine, Billirubin, Cytochromes, Catalases, DNA and more. - Generators of All kinds that where a wire is moved through a magnetic field and a current is INDUCED (electromagnetic induction). This is EMF w/o a battery. This EMF comes purely from a Changing Magnetic field which is the Subject of THIS VIDEO.

**2) Changing Magnetic Flux**

So in all three of these scenarios are changing what is called the magnetic flux.

And it is only a CHANGING magnetic flux will create an EMF that induces charges/currents to move.

Magnetic flux is essentially a measure of the total magnetic field running through a loop of wire and is equal to the area of the loop times the magnetic field if the field is uniform.

Magnetic Flux is measured in units of Tesla*meters^2 = 1 Weber.

We usually use the greek letter Phi Φ to designate flux

So Magnetic flux is the property that most directly induces emf and hence creating current in a wire (or moving charges in the human body).

**Faraday's Law of Induction - The Master Formula**

Ok, let's now look at the formula use to calculate the EMF which is officially Faraday's Law of Induction.

We just looked at how a change in Flux induces an emf that drives a current in a wire. With that idea alone we are close to the complete equation of Faraday's law (non -calculus form).

Note: This simplified version assumes simple geometries like circles and uniformly distributed changing magnetic fields. Otherwise we need to drag out messy integrals, but the idea is the same.

EMF = ΔΦ/Δt (this is saying just that a change in flux with time is equal to the induced EMF. Δ = change

This equation works through inducing the emf in one loop of wire, but often there are many loops (like in PEMF coils).

**N = Number of Coils or turns in coil**

For example, if there are two coils the induced EMF is multiplied by 2, if there are 10 coils it is multiplied by 10.

Faraday's law of induction lets us calculate how much EMF - and therefore, how much current - will be induced in a loop of wire (or many loops) by a change in Magnetic flux.

EMF = N*ΔΦ/Δt

Faraday's law of induction lets us calculate how much EMF - and therefore, how much current - will be induced in a loop of wire (or many loops) by a change in Magnetic flux.

EMF = N*ΔΦ/Δt

But we are still missing one thing.

Faraday noticed If the flux decreases over time, the EMF increases, and if the flux increases over time, the EMF decreases. So a minus sign is needed to give us the complete formula.

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

So what direction will the induced current flow? To figure that out we use Lenz's Law.

You know how currents generate magnetic fields... Well Lenz's law says that the magnetic field generated by the induced current will be in the direction opposite the change in the magnetic flux.

So if you know the direction of change in magnetic flux, you can figure out the direction of the magnetic field generated by the current. And then you can use the right hand rule to figure out the direction of the current.

Faraday noticed If the flux decreases over time, the EMF increases, and if the flux increases over time, the EMF decreases. So a minus sign is needed to give us the complete formula.

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

**Minus Sign comes from Lenz's Law**So what direction will the induced current flow? To figure that out we use Lenz's Law.

You know how currents generate magnetic fields... Well Lenz's law says that the magnetic field generated by the induced current will be in the direction opposite the change in the magnetic flux.

So if you know the direction of change in magnetic flux, you can figure out the direction of the magnetic field generated by the current. And then you can use the right hand rule to figure out the direction of the current.

Faraday's law of induction is kind of an inertial phenomenon.

It is hard to get a current going through induction and equally hard to stop or reverse its direction. A current in motion likes to stay in motion.

The reason the induced Current generates an opposing magnetic field is that it takes energy and work to get a current moving from rest (if it didn't we would be violating conservation of energy).

**(Creating a magnetic field takes energy in the form of getting the current moving - it also stores energy so that when you turn the current OFF you can capture that stored energy (as we'll see). Larger Coil PEMF devices require more energy to get the current moving and therefore have MORE ENERGY in the field around them...

So drumroll please...

Here is Faraday's Law in it's Complete Form (non-calculus).

It is hard to get a current going through induction and equally hard to stop or reverse its direction. A current in motion likes to stay in motion.

The reason the induced Current generates an opposing magnetic field is that it takes energy and work to get a current moving from rest (if it didn't we would be violating conservation of energy).

**(Creating a magnetic field takes energy in the form of getting the current moving - it also stores energy so that when you turn the current OFF you can capture that stored energy (as we'll see). Larger Coil PEMF devices require more energy to get the current moving and therefore have MORE ENERGY in the field around them...

So drumroll please...

Here is Faraday's Law in it's Complete Form (non-calculus).

*****Best Summary Faraday's and Lenz's Laws:**

Faraday’s experiments showed that the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux depends on only a few factors.

**1)**EMF is directly proportional to the change in flux Δ

*Φ*.

**2)**EMF is greatest when the change in time Δ

*t*is smallest—that is, emf is inversely proportional to Δ

*t*.

**3)**If a coil has

*N*turns, an emf will be produced that is

*N*times greater than for a single coil, so that emf is directly proportional to

*N*.

The equation for the emf induced by a change in magnetic flux is

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Faraday's Law of Induction +

**Lenz's Law (for the minus sign)**Gives Complete Formula for

**Electromagnetic Induction**:

Electromagnetic Induction is a process of inducing an electromotive force to produce a current by varying the magnetic field across a conductor. The induced current flows in a direction that creates an induced magnetic field which opposes the change in magnetic flux. This part of Faraday's Law is know as Lenz's Law and is denoted by the negative sign in the equation.

EMF =

**-**N*ΔΦ/Δt

**Let's Now Look at some examples as How**

__Faraday's Law applies to PEMF device__s.**1)**Importance of Magnetic Flux vs Magnetic Field Strength (Intensity) Alone

**2)**Importance of Number of Turns or loops in the coil (

**"N"**from Faraday's Law)

**3)**Rapid Rise and Fall to give maximum induction dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt from Faraday's Law).

**4)**Why sine waves are not ideal (and not natural either).(ΔΦ/Δt from Faraday's Law)

**5)**PEMF and how it induces EMF that charges in the body (E or EMF from Faraday's Law)

**1) The Importance of Magnetic Flux**

**Φ**

**vs Magnetic Field Strength ALONE**

PEMF and Magnetic Fluxlike electric flux is a scalar quantity, and in the magnetic case it has a special name - "WEBERS", which is abbreviated Wb and which has units T* m^2 (magnetic field times area).

PEMF and Magnetic Flux

In PEMF therapy, the Magnetic Flux HEAVILY depends on the area of the Coil. You have to integrate the magnetic field OVER THE ENTIRE AREA. Therefore larger coils have and exponentially LARGER flux as you increase the radius than smaller coils. Why because Area = pi*r^2. If you double the radius, the flux increases 4-fold. Quadruple the radius and it increases 16-fold.

In this image shown, the OMI pad has small little coils. The iMRS pillow applicator has coils that are 11x longer in radius. Therefore EVEN WITH THE SAME INTENSITY AT THE SURFACE, the Magnetic FLUX in webers of the iMRS 2000 is 121 times LARGER!!!

Lets use 20 uT (.00002 Tesla) which is reported intensity on the OMI pad. The iMRS 2000 on level 100 has about this intensity at the surface.

The magnetic flux of the OMI Pad is therefore .00002 Tesla*.02^2*pi = .0063 uWb (Tesla*m^2).

The magnetic flux of the iMRS 2000 pillow is .76 uW or

Another example is the biobalance which uses 21 coils but has only a 3.31 cm radius.

So comparing the flux in Webers of each coil with maximum of 5 gauss.

iMRS 2000 and BEMER use both around .7 gauss and 11cm coil. Converting to meters and Tesla we find the flux of the iMRS 2000 and BEMER is over 1.5 times are strong as the Biobalance.

So iMRS and BEMER coils though they have 1/7 the field strength, their FLUXES are over 1-1/2 times greater!!

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

In this image shown, the OMI pad has small little coils. The iMRS pillow applicator has coils that are 11x longer in radius. Therefore EVEN WITH THE SAME INTENSITY AT THE SURFACE, the Magnetic FLUX in webers of the iMRS 2000 is 121 times LARGER!!!

Lets use 20 uT (.00002 Tesla) which is reported intensity on the OMI pad. The iMRS 2000 on level 100 has about this intensity at the surface.

The magnetic flux of the OMI Pad is therefore .00002 Tesla*.02^2*pi = .0063 uWb (Tesla*m^2).

The magnetic flux of the iMRS 2000 pillow is .76 uW or

**121 TIMES STRONGER.**Another example is the biobalance which uses 21 coils but has only a 3.31 cm radius.

So comparing the flux in Webers of each coil with maximum of 5 gauss.

iMRS 2000 and BEMER use both around .7 gauss and 11cm coil. Converting to meters and Tesla we find the flux of the iMRS 2000 and BEMER is over 1.5 times are strong as the Biobalance.

So iMRS and BEMER coils though they have 1/7 the field strength, their FLUXES are over 1-1/2 times greater!!

**So you get a greater induced EMF or current flow from a larger magnetic flux (Faraday's Law).**EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

**Do you see how it is so easy to mislead with intensity ALONE??!! More on this in future modules. The intensities listed by PEMF companies mean nothing without knowing the SIZE of the coils, number of turns, and more!!!****HelpFul Analogy to Understand Magnetic Flux**

Using larger coils on a PEMF device creates a larger and more smooth and even magnetic flux. Many PEMF devices on the market fail to tell you how large their coils are and mislead you with "Intensity Only" numbers.

A helpful analogy to understand this deception is fan sizes and air flow.

Try to visual a small battery powered fan blow little bursts of wind compared to a larger powerful standing fan that blows a powerful and large jet stream of air.

This is a good analogy because magnetic flux is like water or air movement.

Bigger and more coils means more magnetic "Wind" energizing your body.

All the handheld cheap and portable PEMF devices that are battery powered use small weak coils. Also some larger full body Mat devices do as well. What your body needs is larger and more powerful coils which DO require more energy and rarely can be powered by batteries.

Rule of thumb: If your PEMF device is battery powered OR CAN be battery powered, it is almost certainly too weak of a magnetic flux.

Almost all handheld PEMF devices with small little loops are too weak of a magnetic flux to promote any significant healing. And there are several full body mat devices that use smaller coils even while listing greater intensities.

A small fan might even have the same wind speed (analogous to magnetic field) but will still result in a weak stream of air. Wind flux is also proportional to area.

What the body analogously needs a smooth low to medium breeze with a large fan. This is equivalent to a lower intensity PEMF with large coils. Note: small coils with large intensities like Biobalance and Sedona wellness are like tiny fans that blow uncomfortably strong and focused streams. Like in your shower when you close the shower head to get a thin jet of water. It is not pleasant. You like a nice steady current of water spread out evenly.

You need a full body mat device and local applicators with larger and more powerful coils.

The IMRS 2000 and BEMER are two examples of full body mats that are done right. Oh and remember to look for ONLY perfectly circular coils as we mentioned in the last video.

Junkyard magnets have a typical area of around 1 meter squared

Junkyard magnets can have fields in the 1 tesla range. This is fairly large, but the real key to the magnet's strength is the LARGE AREA, which is on the order of 1 meter squared. (square with meter stick side).

That is a very large area for a MAGNET. If you have ever played around with small neodynamium magnets which are about the same field strength (but MUCH smaller area), you know how strong they can stick together. Image a neodynium magnet that had a 1 meter diameter!

Most PEMF mats even with larger coils like the iMRS 2000 have much more energy than smaller coils with the same magnetic field strength. The key is TOTAL MAGNETIC FLUX (Area*Intensity), NOT INTENSITY alone!

Junkyard magnets can have fields in the 1 tesla range. This is fairly large, but the real key to the magnet's strength is the LARGE AREA, which is on the order of 1 meter squared. (square with meter stick side).

That is a very large area for a MAGNET. If you have ever played around with small neodynamium magnets which are about the same field strength (but MUCH smaller area), you know how strong they can stick together. Image a neodynium magnet that had a 1 meter diameter!

Most PEMF mats even with larger coils like the iMRS 2000 have much more energy than smaller coils with the same magnetic field strength. The key is TOTAL MAGNETIC FLUX (Area*Intensity), NOT INTENSITY alone!

**2)**Number of Turns or loops in the coil (

**"N"**from Faraday's Law)

****Number Of Turns in the Coil**

iMRS 2000 Probe on Left, BEMER B-SPOT on RIGHT.

iMRS 2000 Probe on Left, BEMER B-SPOT on RIGHT.

Both use approximately the SAME radius coil, but because iMRS 2000 has 100 turns vs what appears to be about 3 on BEMER for a given current strength, the FLUX through the iMRS 2000 probe is 100 : 3 times greater.

But it is actually even MORE than that because Iron core AMPLIFIES the field over 1000x as we saw in the last video (iron is ferromagnetic).

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

**3)**Rapid Rise and Fall to give maximum induction dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt from Faraday's Law)

That is, the faster you change the magnetic flux, the GREATER will be the induced EMF.

Another way of saying this is that EMF is greatest when the change in time Δ

*t*is smallest—that is, emf is inversely proportional to Δ

*t*. This happens ONLY with rapid rise and fall waveforms.

Induction of EMF in PEMF Devices - PEMF devices use changing currents to create changing magnetic fields (PEMFs).

This can be done by switching the current on and off in very complex ways. The rhythmic switching on and off of an electric current in current loops creates pulsating magnetic fields. From this changing current, comes the waveform of the PEMF signal. The most common waveforms used are the sine wave, square wave and the sawtooth.

Therapeutically speaking, what is most important is the amount of time it takes for the wave to reach it's peak. That is, how rapidly it rises and falls.

This is represented in Faraday's law as ΔΦ/Δt, which means the change in magnetic flux divided by the change in time. Sometimes you will see this listed as dB/dT which is technically not correct, but is trying to say the same thing.

So the faster the signal reaches its peak, the sharper or steeper the slope will be and hence the greater theΔΦ/Δt. Squarewave and sawtooth have the GREATEST ΔΦ/Δt and hence the GREATEST biological and healing effect. Remember to keep in mind that ΔΦ/Δt also includes the AREA of the coil, so LARGER coils along with rapid rise and fall signals give you the MAXIMAL magnetic induction.

Magnetic field strength is also part of the ΔΦ but you do not need high intensity, it is best to use larger coils with a clear high fidelity signal (from good electronics and tightly wound perfectly circular copper coils) and of course with rapid rise and fall (greater ΔΦ/Δt or dB/dT).

This is what is most ideal to create ideal frequency resonance effects in the body. More on frequency and resonance in the next video where we will see the key for wireless energy transfer is frequency resonance and coil size NOT INTENSITY, but for now understand that a rapid rise and fall signal along with larger coils maximizes the change in magnetic flux and hence the induced EMF as we saw earlier in the video.

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Using high intensity PEMF is unnecessary, unsafe and less effective (more on this later).

This can be done by switching the current on and off in very complex ways. The rhythmic switching on and off of an electric current in current loops creates pulsating magnetic fields. From this changing current, comes the waveform of the PEMF signal. The most common waveforms used are the sine wave, square wave and the sawtooth.

Therapeutically speaking, what is most important is the amount of time it takes for the wave to reach it's peak. That is, how rapidly it rises and falls.

This is represented in Faraday's law as ΔΦ/Δt, which means the change in magnetic flux divided by the change in time. Sometimes you will see this listed as dB/dT which is technically not correct, but is trying to say the same thing.

So the faster the signal reaches its peak, the sharper or steeper the slope will be and hence the greater theΔΦ/Δt. Squarewave and sawtooth have the GREATEST ΔΦ/Δt and hence the GREATEST biological and healing effect. Remember to keep in mind that ΔΦ/Δt also includes the AREA of the coil, so LARGER coils along with rapid rise and fall signals give you the MAXIMAL magnetic induction.

Magnetic field strength is also part of the ΔΦ but you do not need high intensity, it is best to use larger coils with a clear high fidelity signal (from good electronics and tightly wound perfectly circular copper coils) and of course with rapid rise and fall (greater ΔΦ/Δt or dB/dT).

This is what is most ideal to create ideal frequency resonance effects in the body. More on frequency and resonance in the next video where we will see the key for wireless energy transfer is frequency resonance and coil size NOT INTENSITY, but for now understand that a rapid rise and fall signal along with larger coils maximizes the change in magnetic flux and hence the induced EMF as we saw earlier in the video.

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Using high intensity PEMF is unnecessary, unsafe and less effective (more on this later).

Both the saw tooth and the square have rise and fall times that are far more abrupt than a simple sine waveform or triangle waveform or other waveforms.

Waveforms like a sine or triangle wave have gradual rise and fall times and

NOTE: An idealized squarewave represents the greatest ΔΦ/Δt for a given intensity since it is theoretically infinite. But this idea can never be reached and it in reality more trapezoidal than square, but STILL it has the greatest ΔΦ/Δt.

NOTE2: Sine waves have the most slow or gradual rise and fall and hence a LOW ΔΦ/Δt for a given intensity and less healing power because of less induction. They are still better than static magnets but definitely NOT ideal.

**And here is the key point - the more abrupt the rise and fall time, the greater the induced emf and hence the greater the biological effect!**Waveforms like a sine or triangle wave have gradual rise and fall times and

**are not capable of maximum ion transport**. These devices ignore the many studies that demonstrate the profound biological effects of waveforms with sharp rise and fall times (such as the sawtooth and square waveforms).NOTE: An idealized squarewave represents the greatest ΔΦ/Δt for a given intensity since it is theoretically infinite. But this idea can never be reached and it in reality more trapezoidal than square, but STILL it has the greatest ΔΦ/Δt.

NOTE2: Sine waves have the most slow or gradual rise and fall and hence a LOW ΔΦ/Δt for a given intensity and less healing power because of less induction. They are still better than static magnets but definitely NOT ideal.

**A Helpful Analogy to Understand Why Sawtooth and Square waves are more effective than Sine waves**

One of the ways to understand why a rapid rise and fall works better is that you need an abrupt change to create ion transport across the cell membrane to create energy.

As an analogy, think of starting a fire with a piece of flint and a stone. You strike the stone with the flint quickly and abruptly to create a spark/energy. This is like a sawtooth or squarewave motion.

Another example is credit card reader. A faster swipe = a BIGGER signal (more induction). This is like a sawtooth or square wave. A sine wave motion through a credit card reader would be like moving your card slowly back and forth. This results in a smaller signal and a lower probability of success. Doesn't that make intuitive sense???

**4)**Why sine waves are not ideal (

**and not natural either**).(ΔΦ/Δt from Faraday's Law)

Unfortunately a LOT of PEMF companies (like we mentioned) use the inferior sine waveform.. Honestly it makes no sense to me as someone who used to teach physics. And don't be fooled by jargon like square gated sine carrier, that is still a sine wave signal.

Using a sine wave (Like Biobalance, MAS and Curatron/parmeds, and other devices on the market) is akin to slowly rubbing the stone with the flint up and down slowly or slowly swiping your credit card and getting no response.

These devices use higher intensities to make up for their lack of induction. This is unhealthy, less effective and inefficient. As we'll see in the next module, and future modules, the key is frequency resonance NOT intensity.

Pictured below are sine wave PEMF devices: Curatron, MAS, Biobalance.

So You absolutely want a rapid rise and fall signal for maximal induction. Because of this, I would definitely NOT recommend any sine wave PEMF devices. This is not my opinion, this is high school level physics!! I remember being taught Faraday's law in high school Physics.

And they say unscientific things to justify using an inferior sine signal. The most common I have heard is the

The simple sine wave is NOT found in nature. The Schumann resonance and geomagnetic frequencies are MUCH more complex. For starters consider that the Schumann resonances are generated from Lightning strikes which are anything but sine waves. Have you even seen a sine wave lightning bolt?

And they say unscientific things to justify using an inferior sine signal. The most common I have heard is the

**Sine wave is what is found in Nature...**__WRONG!!!__The simple sine wave is NOT found in nature. The Schumann resonance and geomagnetic frequencies are MUCH more complex. For starters consider that the Schumann resonances are generated from Lightning strikes which are anything but sine waves. Have you even seen a sine wave lightning bolt?

Here is an accurate plot of the Schumann resonance and its higher harmonics from a 1990 study. And you can clearly see it’s not just a smooth sine wave. There are some rapid rise and fall spikes, especially at the 7.83, the primary harmonic. It’s a very rapid rise and fall spike. It’s not a smooth sine wave. And when you think about it, because the Schumann resonance comes from lightning strikes, which are anything but smooth (they are very jagged – very chaotic – very random).

There’s no smooth sine wave to be found at all. That’s just a false statement about the natural Earth’s frequencies. They are not smooth sine waves. Even the higher harmonics that appear to smooth out a bit when superimposed with the primary signal are again part of a rapid rise and fall pulse of the earth. And doesn't it make sense that Nature would give life on Earth more of a rapid rise and fall signal for MAXIMUM induction and hence maximal energy transfer and flows?

There’s no smooth sine wave to be found at all. That’s just a false statement about the natural Earth’s frequencies. They are not smooth sine waves. Even the higher harmonics that appear to smooth out a bit when superimposed with the primary signal are again part of a rapid rise and fall pulse of the earth. And doesn't it make sense that Nature would give life on Earth more of a rapid rise and fall signal for MAXIMUM induction and hence maximal energy transfer and flows?

This is why the Sawtooth and Squarewave and other rapid rise and fall signals are ideal.

Interestingly Dr Pawluk on page 10 of his book states the importance of dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt) yet on his website he selling several sine wave devices like the Curatron/Parmeds and Biobalance pushing the biobalance. Sine waves have a much lower dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt) than squarewave and sawtooth for a given current strength. Marcus Freudenmann of Truly heal also contradicts himself promoting sine wave as natural and then turning around and selling high powered ringer devices that are rapid rise and fall (and dangerous intensities).

I mention these two experts because a lot of people read their books and watch their videos.

I say this not to pick on these guys , but because I talk to people daily and unfortunately many are getting fooled and deceived by bad science and so called experts that blatantly contradict themselves. If so called experts say conflicting and easily proven unscientific statements, isn't it hard to trust their advice??

Interestingly Dr Pawluk on page 10 of his book states the importance of dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt) yet on his website he selling several sine wave devices like the Curatron/Parmeds and Biobalance pushing the biobalance. Sine waves have a much lower dB/dT (ΔΦ/Δt) than squarewave and sawtooth for a given current strength. Marcus Freudenmann of Truly heal also contradicts himself promoting sine wave as natural and then turning around and selling high powered ringer devices that are rapid rise and fall (and dangerous intensities).

I mention these two experts because a lot of people read their books and watch their videos.

I say this not to pick on these guys , but because I talk to people daily and unfortunately many are getting fooled and deceived by bad science and so called experts that blatantly contradict themselves. If so called experts say conflicting and easily proven unscientific statements, isn't it hard to trust their advice??

**5)**EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Ok, we have seem HOW PEMF devices can induce an EMF, NOW we need to see HOW that EMF moves charges and currents in the body, tissues and cells to produce the MANY benefits PEMF provides. But in a nutshell PEMF moves charges to produce energy.

PEMF and how it induces charges in the body (E or EMF from Faraday's Law) = P-

**EMF, interestingly contains the**"EMF" and its the EMF from PEMF that charges Cellular Voltage

**PEMF and Faraday's Law - EMF to Drive Charges in the Body**

PEMF devices through Faraday's law of induction generate an EMF that Moves electrons, protons and charges in the cells which increases ATP production and charges the cellular voltage.

**Concluding Thoughts**

To Maximize Faradays's Law of Induction

To Maximize Faradays's Law of Induction

And get the Best EMF From Your PEMF:

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

1) Get a Full Body mat PEMF to cover whole body

2) Make sure it has large tightly wound coils

3) Make sure it uses a rapid rise and fall signal like square wave or sawtooth

4) Make sure it is lower intensity for safety and efficacy

5) Make sure it uses biologically active frequencies 0-50 Hz (more on this in next module)

Optimal Magnetic Induction Optimally Charges your 37 trillion cells and increases energy and healing on all levels.