**Home stretch - Energy and Power Transfer**

**MAIN GOAL PEMF is WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER TO POWER UP YOUR CELLS, ATP and Microcirculation

**MAIN GOAL PEMF is WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER TO POWER UP YOUR CELLS, ATP and Microcirculation

**7) Electric Power and Transformers- Electric Energy Transfer and Inductive Energy Transfer.**

Think about it, Where-ever you are now there is probably an electrical outlet within reach, whether you want to vacuum the living room, or recharge your phone, all you have to do is plug into the wall and BAM, instant access to electricity. Or flip a switch and presto, instant LIGHT. All the electronic devices and appliances in your home along are all examples of things that depend on electrical current to operate.

More specifically most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current.

But haven't you ever wondered how all that electrical power gets to your house, school or office and how it all started?

There are lots of steps, but two of the most important ones involve electric generators that create AC current and transformers which wirelessly step up or step down that current to your home. This system of Power transmission was Great invention of Nikola Tesla back in the late 1880's and Gave rise to the second Industrial Revolution.

Historical SIDE NOTE: Historians have labeled the years from 1870-1914 as the period of the

Historical SIDE NOTE: Historians have labeled the years from 1870-1914 as the period of the

**Second Industrial Revolution**. While the First**Industrial Revolution**caused the growth of industries, such as coal, iron, railroads and textiles, the**Second Industrial Revolution**witnessed the expansion of electricity, petroleum and steel**The Fair the Forever Changed the World**

The Columbian Exhibition in Chicago was to be the first World's Fair Lighted By Electricity.

Edison put together a negative campaign on AC current that was being developed by Westinghouse and Tesla.

The Edison company and the Thompson Houston company all got together and formed General Electric in 1892. One of the first things they did was put in a bid for the job at the fair but they were outbid by Westinghouse for the job.

GE would not sell any of their Edison lightbulbs so Westinghouse has to frantically develop their own, which they did.

Now Tesla had a chance to make history in Chicago. His Large AC generators would supply all of the Fair's Electricity and prove that his system would work on a large scale.

On May 1st, 1893 - 100,000 eager spectators filed into the fairgrounds awed by the gleaning neoclassical architecture.

Night Fell, and president Grover Cleveland pressed a button and the fairgrounds exploded with brilliant tube lighting and multicolored searchlights, the most incredible display of lighting the world had ever seen.

In the great hall of electricity, the public could see that the Tesla Westinghouse system made it all possible.

The Chicago Exhibition left an unforgettable impression on the American imagination. This was the gleaming new city of the future and it was powered by the Inventions of Nikola Tesla.

It was a monumental achievement, and Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electrical power systems which is basically unchanged EVEN TODAY!

Tesla's alternating current induction motor is considered one of the ten greatest discoveries of all time.

So to understand how power is delivered to our houses, we need to understand the basics of AC Current Theory, Generators, Inductors and Transformers. As we'll see, this has direct and fundamental application to energy medicine devices that use changing electrical current (like Estim and TENS units) and devices that create changing magnetic fields (like PEMF).

The Chicago Exhibition left an unforgettable impression on the American imagination. This was the gleaming new city of the future and it was powered by the Inventions of Nikola Tesla.

It was a monumental achievement, and Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electrical power systems which is basically unchanged EVEN TODAY!

Tesla's alternating current induction motor is considered one of the ten greatest discoveries of all time.

So to understand how power is delivered to our houses, we need to understand the basics of AC Current Theory, Generators, Inductors and Transformers. As we'll see, this has direct and fundamental application to energy medicine devices that use changing electrical current (like Estim and TENS units) and devices that create changing magnetic fields (like PEMF).

As you probably know there are two types of current, direct current as referred to as DC and alternating current or AC. Batteries are the most common sources of DC current, and everything else more or less uses AC which is the electricity coming from the power company to your house. The path that either type of current flows through is called a circuit.

NOTE: In Electrodynamics textbooks, AC Means "NOT DC"... the currents and voltages may not be oscillatory in each case, but in all cases they will be varying with time. The circuits could contain resistors, inductors and capacitors. That is, AC usually means ANY Current that varies with time including complex waveforms and simple blips from just the flipping of a switch. DC is constant power that does NOT vary with time and is always just a straight line when the amplitude is plotted against time. So let's start by reviewing DC current and DC circuits which we introduced in Module 3.

NOTE: In Electrodynamics textbooks, AC Means "NOT DC"... the currents and voltages may not be oscillatory in each case, but in all cases they will be varying with time. The circuits could contain resistors, inductors and capacitors. That is, AC usually means ANY Current that varies with time including complex waveforms and simple blips from just the flipping of a switch. DC is constant power that does NOT vary with time and is always just a straight line when the amplitude is plotted against time. So let's start by reviewing DC current and DC circuits which we introduced in Module 3.

Here is a DC circuit that also consists of a power source DC, a wire and a resistor. Batteries of all kinds of examples of DC power sources.

In our DC circuit our power source is a battery.

Current flows through the negative terminal of the battery through the conductor through the resistor and back to the positive terminal of the battery. In a DC circuit current always flows in one direction. Also the negative terminal of a DC power source is always the negative terminal. And the positive terminal is always the positive terminal. A simpler way to say this is that a DC power source has FIXED polarity.

Ohms law hold in DC circuits. V=IR , P=VI, etc.

**DC Circuits**In our DC circuit our power source is a battery.

Current flows through the negative terminal of the battery through the conductor through the resistor and back to the positive terminal of the battery. In a DC circuit current always flows in one direction. Also the negative terminal of a DC power source is always the negative terminal. And the positive terminal is always the positive terminal. A simpler way to say this is that a DC power source has FIXED polarity.

Ohms law hold in DC circuits. V=IR , P=VI, etc.

**AC Circuits**

In an AC circuit, both the voltage and the current are both constantly changing directions from negative to positive and back again.

Alternating Current is what flows out of your walls and it is the type of electricity used in homes and businesses throughout the world and depending what part of the world you live in, the current reverses itself either 50 or 60 times a second. This is called the frequency of the current and you will normally see It written in hertz or Hz.

An AC Current flows first in one direction and then in the other direction. The voltage and the current and hence the power are ALL changing with time, so that makes things more complicated, but luckily we'll simplify it here.

Power sources for AC circuits do NOT have fixed polarity. The polarity of an AC power source changes periodically. As the polarity of the power source changes, the direction of current flow changes too. Alternating current flows in one direction and then in the opposite directions.

One way to provide power for an AC circuit is to use an AC generator.

The generator produces the voltage that causes current to flow through the circuit.

This is a simplified AC generator

It provides current for a circuit that includes a lightbulb.

The generator produces voltage (or EMF) by means of induction as we looked at in the last video.

To induce voltage 3 things must be present:

1) A Conductor

2) A Magnetic Field

3) And Relative Motion between the conductor and magnetic field (change in FLUX)

In this generator shown, the conductor is the loop of wire shown and the magnetic field is provided by 2 permanent magnets. The relative motion or change in flux comes when conductor is rotated so that it cuts through the magnetic field.

The voltage that is produced by this generator will cause current to flow if there is a complete circuit to provide a path for it.

This complete circuit has a lightbulb for the current to flow through.

During each cycle the current flowing through the lightbulb causes it to brighten, dim, go out, brighten dim and go out again. That is the Voltage is constantly switching directions but switches smoothly so the currently gradually increases, then decreases, switching directions, then gradually increases and decreases again.

The magnetic field between the magnet poles is made up of a number of lines of magnetic flux. As the conductor rotates it cuts through the lines of flux.

The voltage that is produced by this generator will cause current to flow if there is a complete circuit to provide a path for it.

This complete circuit has a lightbulb for the current to flow through.

During each cycle the current flowing through the lightbulb causes it to brighten, dim, go out, brighten dim and go out again. That is the Voltage is constantly switching directions but switches smoothly so the currently gradually increases, then decreases, switching directions, then gradually increases and decreases again.

The magnetic field between the magnet poles is made up of a number of lines of magnetic flux. As the conductor rotates it cuts through the lines of flux.

So as the loop rotates the area perpendicular to the magnetic field lines changes and hence the flux changes. And remember Faraday's Law says that a change in magnetic flux induces an EMF or Voltage that drives the current to move. And because the loop is rotating the current will oscillate up and down like a sine wave.

Compare this to our equation for Faraday's law in the last video and you will see it is saying the same thing. Here the change in flux is coming from the rotating loop that changes the area relative to the field lines.

EMF (Voltage) = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Truly Faraday's Law Runs Our Economy!!

Compare this to our equation for Faraday's law in the last video and you will see it is saying the same thing. Here the change in flux is coming from the rotating loop that changes the area relative to the field lines.

EMF (Voltage) = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

Truly Faraday's Law Runs Our Economy!!

Because the conducting loop moves in a circular pattern we can think of it as starting at 0 degrees and then rotating through the 360 degrees that make up a circle.

It does change polarity at 180 degrees and current switches directions.

This changing voltage produces a graph that is a sinusoidal curve or sine wave.

This sine wave represents the AC voltage induced as the conductor makes a complete rotation through a magnetic field.

The vertical axis of this graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. The horizontal axis represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes.

If the plotted voltage value is above the horizontal line it's positive.

If the voltage value is below the horizontal line it's negative.

A voltage level that is on the horizontal line is neither positive or negative but its zero.

It does change polarity at 180 degrees and current switches directions.

This changing voltage produces a graph that is a sinusoidal curve or sine wave.

This sine wave represents the AC voltage induced as the conductor makes a complete rotation through a magnetic field.

The vertical axis of this graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. The horizontal axis represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes.

If the plotted voltage value is above the horizontal line it's positive.

If the voltage value is below the horizontal line it's negative.

A voltage level that is on the horizontal line is neither positive or negative but its zero.

As the conductor rotates, we'll plot a graph again showing 2 sine waves one for voltage and one for current. As the conductor rotates but the voltage and current build up to their maximum positive values and then decrease to zero. Then both voltage and current reverse direction and then build up to their maximum negative values. When they decrease to zero again they'll have completed one cycle.

In this case what we mean by one cycle is one full rotation of the conductor through 360 degrees. A cycle is also one complete sine wave as shown here. Can you see that?

In a typical AC power system 60 cycles are completed every second.

The number of cycles completed each second is called frequency.

As we saw in video #1, frequency is measured in units called hertz. So 60 cycles per second can be referred to as 60 Hertz.

---

GOOD PEMF devices have rectifiers that convert AC to DC ideally AT THE WALL. This eliminate electro smog from the unhealthy 60 Hz power frequencies at the outlets that many studies show are unhealthy. SEE Chapter 7 of my book.

This then allows the control unit to create the healing waveforms and frequencies that are sent through the device.

Rectifier: An electrical device which converts an alternating current into a direct one by allowing a current to flow through it in one direction only.

So PEMF Devices are Modulated AC circuits with Complex Signals (More on this in a future Module).

---

In a typical AC power system 60 cycles are completed every second.

The number of cycles completed each second is called frequency.

As we saw in video #1, frequency is measured in units called hertz. So 60 cycles per second can be referred to as 60 Hertz.

---

**ASIDE: Rectifiers...**GOOD PEMF devices have rectifiers that convert AC to DC ideally AT THE WALL. This eliminate electro smog from the unhealthy 60 Hz power frequencies at the outlets that many studies show are unhealthy. SEE Chapter 7 of my book.

This then allows the control unit to create the healing waveforms and frequencies that are sent through the device.

Rectifier: An electrical device which converts an alternating current into a direct one by allowing a current to flow through it in one direction only.

So PEMF Devices are Modulated AC circuits with Complex Signals (More on this in a future Module).

---

So how do you describe values when they are constantly changing back and forth between maximum and minimum values know as peak current? Can we apply Ohms Law? The answer is, yes and no, but we have to first convert voltage and current to a sort of average value.

The highest point in the AC voltage and current represents the voltages or currents maximum positive value. And the lowest point is the maximum negative value. The Voltages at these two points are referred to as Peak Values. Each cycle has one positive peak and one negative peak.

(which is also the Amplitude).

It is important to note that energy is expended regardless of direction and regardless of plus or minus.

The amount of voltage represented by the distance from the positive peak to the negative peak is called the Peak to peak value.

These values are not commonly used with working with AC circuits and equipment because the values are continuously changing.

The highest point in the AC voltage and current represents the voltages or currents maximum positive value. And the lowest point is the maximum negative value. The Voltages at these two points are referred to as Peak Values. Each cycle has one positive peak and one negative peak.

(which is also the Amplitude).

It is important to note that energy is expended regardless of direction and regardless of plus or minus.

The amount of voltage represented by the distance from the positive peak to the negative peak is called the Peak to peak value.

These values are not commonly used with working with AC circuits and equipment because the values are continuously changing.

Most of the time when we are talking about AC we talk about Effective Values.

Effective Values are based on a comparison between AC current and DC current.

To make this comparison , scientists did a lot of experiments to measuring the heating effects of AC and DC current.

From these experiments, scientists found that 1 Amp of AC current producing the same heating effect as .707 amps of DC current.

In other words, effect AC values are equal to the Peak values x .707

(.707 = 1/√2)

Irms=Io/√2 = .707*Io

Vrms=Vo/√2 = .707*Vo

This relationship applies to both voltage and current because voltage produces current.

Effective Values are based on a comparison between AC current and DC current.

To make this comparison , scientists did a lot of experiments to measuring the heating effects of AC and DC current.

From these experiments, scientists found that 1 Amp of AC current producing the same heating effect as .707 amps of DC current.

In other words, effect AC values are equal to the Peak values x .707

(.707 = 1/√2)

Irms=Io/√2 = .707*Io

Vrms=Vo/√2 = .707*Vo

This relationship applies to both voltage and current because voltage produces current.

**RMS Values**

Effective Values for AC are often called RMS values which stands for

**R**oot

**M**ean

**S**quare

This refers to the mathematical formula which is used to determine effective values.

RMS values provide a way to compare AC voltage and current which vary over time with DC voltage and current which do not vary over time.

Some devices such as heaters and light bulbs can be used in either AC circuits or DC circuits. The voltage and current ratings on these devices are DC values and AC RMS values which are the same.

**The r.m.s. values are the DC values which give the same average power output. So RMS is just a convenient way to work with AC currents and voltages.**

Think of the way you drive a car in stop and go traffic.

You speed up at times and slow down at others, but if you average it out over the whole trip, you have an effective speed somewhere in the middle. That is what current is like in AC calculations (and hence magnetic field strength that comes from current).

You speed up at times and slow down at others, but if you average it out over the whole trip, you have an effective speed somewhere in the middle. That is what current is like in AC calculations (and hence magnetic field strength that comes from current).

**Back To Power...**

True Power- power in a purely resistive circuit... Just Multiply current times voltage = VI

True Power

When we talk about positive power, we mean power that is going from a power supply to a load.

So now that we have RMS values to better describe the current and voltage in AC circuits, we can use these averages to relate to direct current values we use in Ohms Law, for starters with P = V*I, where we use the RMS values for both current and voltage to calculate the average power. The 110 Volts or 220 Volts in Europe actually IS an RMS value so all you need to calculate the Power is the Max current I (and something called a Power Factor, which is a measure of how efficiently power is transferred to a device, usually around 80%).

When we speak of measuring a 120-V alternating voltage from an electrical outlet, we are referring to an rms voltage of 120 Volts. A quick calculation shows that such a voltage has a maximum value of about 170 Volts.

When we speak of measuring a 120-V alternating voltage from an electrical outlet, we are referring to an rms voltage of 120 Volts. A quick calculation shows that such a voltage has a maximum value of about 170 Volts.

AC Power is calculated as RMS voltage times RMS current (provided the voltage is in phase with current which it typically is).

Irms=Io/√2 = .707*Io

Vrms=Vo/√2 = .707*Vo

Pac = Vrms*Irms*PF

𝑃ac = AC Power

𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = AC Voltage rms

𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 = AC Current rms

PF is Power Factor which depends on the reactive power which includes both L and C.

The power factor is the ratio of True Power/Apparent Power in an AC circuit and usually expressed as a decimal.

So True Power = Apparent Power (V*I) x Power Factor

We'll look at Inductive and Capacitive circuits in the next video, but for now understand that energy is tied up (but not lost) with Inductors and Capacitors that is not available to do work.

ASIDE:

Reactive power is power that is not able to do work like in a purely inductive of capacitant circuit.

Apparent Power is the power in a LCR circuit combine both true power and reactive power.

Taken together The combined effects of all three factors (L,C and R) on current flow and therefore on power are called impedance.

In most cases the true power for an LCR circuit is calculated using the Power factor for the specific circuit.

Irms=Io/√2 = .707*Io

Vrms=Vo/√2 = .707*Vo

Pac = Vrms*Irms*PF

𝑃ac = AC Power

𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = AC Voltage rms

𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 = AC Current rms

PF is Power Factor which depends on the reactive power which includes both L and C.

The power factor is the ratio of True Power/Apparent Power in an AC circuit and usually expressed as a decimal.

So True Power = Apparent Power (V*I) x Power Factor

We'll look at Inductive and Capacitive circuits in the next video, but for now understand that energy is tied up (but not lost) with Inductors and Capacitors that is not available to do work.

ASIDE:

Reactive power is power that is not able to do work like in a purely inductive of capacitant circuit.

Apparent Power is the power in a LCR circuit combine both true power and reactive power.

Taken together The combined effects of all three factors (L,C and R) on current flow and therefore on power are called impedance.

In most cases the true power for an LCR circuit is calculated using the Power factor for the specific circuit.

**PEMF Therapy:**Pulsed Magnetic Fields come from AC signals. Static Magnetic fields come from DC fields.

So when PEMF devices list intensities it is always based on RMS values because the field is constantly changing because the current are AC.

Also most Meters I have tested are not vary accurate for detecting the field strengths of PEMF devices. But I have found the trifield meter reliable, but again you will see the numbers constantly change, but I did calculations and found it to be accurate.

Experiment - Seeing the 60 Hz AC Power!

In the U.S., as we mention, the AC current is delivered at 60 Hz. Evidence of this changing power is seen in the video below.

A 60-Hz flicker is too rapid for your eyes to detect. The fact that the light output fluctuates means that the power is fluctuating. The power supplied is

In the U.S., as we mention, the AC current is delivered at 60 Hz. Evidence of this changing power is seen in the video below.

A 60-Hz flicker is too rapid for your eyes to detect. The fact that the light output fluctuates means that the power is fluctuating. The power supplied is

*P = IV*.**ASIDE - Flicker Fusion**

The flicker fusion frequency is the point at which the eye sees an increasingly rapid flashing light as a continuous beam. Put another way, flicker fusion frequency, also known as flicker merging frequency or flicker fusion rate) is the number of frames per second required to reproduce motion in movie film or video.

A

**film**is usually shot and projected at 24 still frames per second. ... Thus each frame is actually projected on the screen twice. This raises the number of flashes to the threshold of what is called "

**critical flicker fusion**".

Early movies were typically shot at 16 frames per second (16 Hz), and the flicker was very noticeable. Today’s movies are typically shot at 24 frames per second (24 Hz) and high definition television (HDTV) is shot at 60 full frames per second (60 Hz).

But let's now continue with how power is transmitted by looking at transformers and mutual inductance.

The single greatest advantage of alternating current is that AC current can be transformed and DC current cannot be transformed.

This allows high voltage electrical power to be distributed over a large distance with smaller wires and lower amperage AND much greater tranmission efficiency than DC (and less energy lost as heat).

Also another Huge advantage of AC for distributing power over a distance is due to the ease of changing voltages with a transformer stepping up to higher voltages for transmitting large distances and then conveniently stepping down to low voltages for use in homes and factories.

1) First you need a power source... Wind, water/gravity, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, etc.

2) Rotates Magnet

3) Changes Flux*

4) Induces EMF*

5) Drives Current*

Generators at the power companies need more than just a simple loop.

use a wire wound around something called an armature, basically a cylinder that rotates uniformly through a magnetic field. As the loop rotates the changing magnetic flux induces a current in the loops of the wire. But the angle that the coil makes with respect to the magnetic field keeps changing which causes the direction of the induced current to reverse itself for every half turn. So the magnetic field in the generator stays constant, but because the coil is rotating, the angle between the coil and the magnetic field changes. This means that the magnetic flux through the loops changes over time which is one of the 3 ways that induces an EMF (which we mentioned in the last video).

Because of this the direction of the current flips for every half rotation.

**Advantages of AC Power Transfer**The single greatest advantage of alternating current is that AC current can be transformed and DC current cannot be transformed.

This allows high voltage electrical power to be distributed over a large distance with smaller wires and lower amperage AND much greater tranmission efficiency than DC (and less energy lost as heat).

Also another Huge advantage of AC for distributing power over a distance is due to the ease of changing voltages with a transformer stepping up to higher voltages for transmitting large distances and then conveniently stepping down to low voltages for use in homes and factories.

**I.****Power Generators and Companies**1) First you need a power source... Wind, water/gravity, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, etc.

2) Rotates Magnet

3) Changes Flux*

4) Induces EMF*

5) Drives Current*

Generators at the power companies need more than just a simple loop.

use a wire wound around something called an armature, basically a cylinder that rotates uniformly through a magnetic field. As the loop rotates the changing magnetic flux induces a current in the loops of the wire. But the angle that the coil makes with respect to the magnetic field keeps changing which causes the direction of the induced current to reverse itself for every half turn. So the magnetic field in the generator stays constant, but because the coil is rotating, the angle between the coil and the magnetic field changes. This means that the magnetic flux through the loops changes over time which is one of the 3 ways that induces an EMF (which we mentioned in the last video).

Because of this the direction of the current flips for every half rotation.

**Generators**

It might seem strange to have a generator that reverses itself 50 or 60 times a second, but actually this turns out to be very useful.

That is because another important device that helps to get the electricity from the power plant to your house is a transformer which is made up of two coils of wire. And transformers only work with AC power. They are necessary because one of the problems are transmitting electricity over long distances is that if the voltage is low, a LOT of power gets wasted as heat, like 80% in some cases. This is a HUGE waste of energy.

When electricity is transmitted at higher voltages, though, much less power gets wasted as heat. That is because for the same power a lower voltage translates to a higher current. And power loss increases proportionally the the square of the current.

But then you need a way to change the voltage from the generator which might be around 12,000 voltages UP to higher voltages as it travels long distances which might be as much as 240,000 voltage. That is definitely not safe at home.

In the U.S. the power coming out of your wall is 110-120 volts and in most other places it is 220-240 volts.

Maybe Make this a Separate Video and End Inductive Coupling Energy Transfer

**II. Transformers Step the Voltage Up and Down Again.**

**Transformers are an important Example of Wireless Energy Transfer**

**Transformers and Mutual Inductance**

Transformers do what their name implies—they transform voltages from one value to another. Transformers are also used at several points in the power distribution systems, such as illustrated in the Figure shown here. Power is sent long distances at high voltages up to 400,000 or more volts, because less current is required for a given amount of power, and this means less line loss, as was discussed previously. But high voltages pose greater hazards, so that transformers are employed to produce lower voltage at the user’s location.

All those voltage changes are done with transformers which take advantage of something called Mutual Inductance, where a change in the current in one coil leads to a change in the EMF in another nearby coil.

And EMF is more or less the same thing as voltage.

This change happens because the changing current in the first coil produces a changing magnetic field so the magnetic FLUX through the second coil changes which induces an EMF

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

And the EMF induced in the second coil will be equal to the change in current in the first coil divided by the change in time and multiplied by a constant M.

M depends on the size and shape of the coils (the geometry) and how they are positioned relative to each other.

This works in the opposite direction as well.

A change in the current of the second coil will induce a corresponding EMF in the first coil.

And EMF is more or less the same thing as voltage.

This change happens because the changing current in the first coil produces a changing magnetic field so the magnetic FLUX through the second coil changes which induces an EMF

EMF = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

And the EMF induced in the second coil will be equal to the change in current in the first coil divided by the change in time and multiplied by a constant M.

M depends on the size and shape of the coils (the geometry) and how they are positioned relative to each other.

This works in the opposite direction as well.

A change in the current of the second coil will induce a corresponding EMF in the first coil.

**Inducing Current from One Loop to another...**

Mutual Inductance is the basic operating principal of the transformer, motors, generators and any other electrical component that interacts with another magnetic field. Then we can define mutual induction as the current flowing in one coil that induces a voltage in an adjacent coil.

Mutual Inductance - Only depends on Geometry and shape (not intensity).

It is kinda an astonishing Conclusion: Whatever the shapes and positions of the loops, the flux through 2 when we run a current through 1, is IDENTICAL to the flux through 1 when we run a current through 2.

In PEMF envision that the source coil is inducing CURRENTS in the BODY CIRCUIT of charged ions, proteins, etc.

PEMF NOTE: This is why you do NOT want two PEMF coils TOO close together or opposing each other, etc, so there won't be mutual inductance disturbing the fields which is a bad thing as “stray” or “leakage” inductance from a coil can interfere with the operation of another adjacent coils. So it is not always GOOD. iMRS 2000 Coils have the perfect proportions for a full body mat.

Also some "wrap around" like BEMER B-pad or butterfly type of coil arrangements as found in high intensity ARE NOT ideal as the fields will mutually interfere.

Back to Transformers...

In transformers the power running through the first coil is AC which means the current produces a magnetic field that is constantly changing so that an EMF is produced in the second coil.

But if the second coil has more turns than the first, it will have a higher voltage and vice versa.

Here's why

Faraday's Law which we talked about in the last video

EMF (or voltage) = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

This can be worked out to an equation for each coil separately, using "p" for primary coil and "s" for secondary coil.

Basic Idea:

AC current comes in through primary coil

This creates a varying magnetic flux in the core via Ampere...

Which Induces an AC current in the secondary coil via Faraday's Law.

In transformers the power running through the first coil is AC which means the current produces a magnetic field that is constantly changing so that an EMF is produced in the second coil.

But if the second coil has more turns than the first, it will have a higher voltage and vice versa.

Here's why

Faraday's Law which we talked about in the last video

EMF (or voltage) = -N*ΔΦ/Δt

This can be worked out to an equation for each coil separately, using "p" for primary coil and "s" for secondary coil.

Basic Idea:

AC current comes in through primary coil

This creates a varying magnetic flux in the core via Ampere...

Which Induces an AC current in the secondary coil via Faraday's Law.

We want to know how the voltage in the primary coil compares to the voltage in the secondary coil. Just divide the two equations above: Vp/Vs

The change in magnetic flux along with the minus sign cancels with simple algebra, which leaves us with a simple equation.

Vp/Vs = Np/Ns

If the secondary coil has twice as many loops as primary coil it will have 2x voltage (step up transformers increase voltage and have more coils than primary). If it has fewer loops, it decreases voltage so that is a step down transformer.

The change in magnetic flux along with the minus sign cancels with simple algebra, which leaves us with a simple equation.

Vp/Vs = Np/Ns

If the secondary coil has twice as many loops as primary coil it will have 2x voltage (step up transformers increase voltage and have more coils than primary). If it has fewer loops, it decreases voltage so that is a step down transformer.

ASIDE: Tesla coils (biocharger) are fancy versions of step up transformers. The secondary coil is designed so that it shoots out bursts of electricity so that it looks like lightning bolts.

Examples below of Energy Medicine devices that use step up transformers... Quantum Pulse, Biocharger, Tesla Energy Light.

Mutual inductance is also used in lots of other things as well, like wireless chargers for example.

Examples below of Energy Medicine devices that use step up transformers... Quantum Pulse, Biocharger, Tesla Energy Light.

Mutual inductance is also used in lots of other things as well, like wireless chargers for example.

**1) AC Current Directly (Wired) - Power Company, Estim/TENS/Scenar.**

2) Inductive Coupling

2) Inductive Coupling

Most wireless charging today uses inductive coupling.

(later we'll see resonant coupling is the next big thing).

Most cellphones now have wireless charging features where you just put the cell phone on top of a charging pad and it charges. You do not have to plug anything in.

Your electric toothbrush, iphone, apple watch, and even cars now have wireless charging options that work via inductive coupling like the transformers in front of your house.

Inductive coupling is simple: You run an AC current through one coil of wire (the transmitter); the AC current creates a changing magnetic field via Ampere's law; and this changing magnetic field induces current in the receiving coil via Faraday's law of induction. That is, The AC power running through the charging pad induces an EMF in your phone's or toothbrushes coil which can use the energy to charge its battery.

Electrical power is transmitted from one coil to the other wirelessly.

The Problem is, the changing magnetic field is omnidirectional — it just shoots out energy in every direction. Because of this receiver has to be very close to the transmitter to pick up much power; that’s why you have to set the device on the pad so the coils can be close together.

So the same technology that helps to get electricity to the outlets in your wall, can move power from one device to another even if there are no physical connections between them.

Electrical power is transmitted from one coil to the other wirelessly.

The Problem is, the changing magnetic field is omnidirectional — it just shoots out energy in every direction. Because of this receiver has to be very close to the transmitter to pick up much power; that’s why you have to set the device on the pad so the coils can be close together.

So the same technology that helps to get electricity to the outlets in your wall, can move power from one device to another even if there are no physical connections between them.

**AC CIRCUITS IN PEMF DEVICES**

__REVIEW__Ok lets summarize what we have learned so far and apply it to a PEMF therapy device which is TWO PARTS

**1) The AC Current Going through the Device. Think AC current from the POWER COMPANY.**

**2) PEMF AS A TRANSFORMER WIRELESSLY TRANSMITTING ENERGY TO THE BODY. Think Transformers the wireless step up or step down the changing magnetic field energy created from the AC current.**

So a good PEMF device is Like the Power Company and Your Cells Are The Many Homes it Delivers Energy and POWER TOO. As we'll see in the last video of this series, this is NOT just a metaphor, PEMF literally is a whole body Wireless Energy Transmitting Station to your 37 Trillion Cells!!

**1) The AC Current Going through the Device.**

**Think AC current from the POWER COMPANY.**

I PEMF device creates an AC circuit through the applicators.

The power usually comes in from the Power company in the form of a 60 Hz AC current that is stepped down to 110 Volts (RMS). The PEMF device will then rectify this 60 Hz AC current into a DC current. From there the control unit computer will modulate the current into a specific frequency, waveform, pulsetrain and this modulated complex AC current (here AC , means NOT DC). Let's Take a quick look at how more complex waveforms are created.

**The AC Currents Used in PEMF Devices.**

Some PEMF Devices DO use simple sine wave AC Currents which produce AC PEMFs and as we talked about in Video #6 this is NOT ideal for maximal induction.

Recap:

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves. More formally, it decomposes any periodic function or periodic signal into the weighted sum of a (possibly infinite) set of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines (or, equivalently, complex exponentials).

The study of Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis. The discrete-time Fourier transform is a periodic function, often defined in terms of a Fourier series.

**Fourier Series For a Squarewave**

**Fourier Series For a Basic Sawtooth**

**2) PEMF AS A TRANSFORMER WIRELESSLY TRANSMITTING ENERGY TO THE BODY**

The PEMF Produced

The PEMF Produced

This current goes through the coils and through Ampere's law a changing magnetic field is formed around the current.

**Faraday's Induction and Wirelessly Charging the Cells**

Faraday's law tells us a current will be induced in a local circuit from a changing magnetic field. Because the human body is filled electrolytic solutions, there are many charged particles, electrons and protons that can conduct electricity. This movement of charges from Electromagnetic Induction is non-contact, that is like a transformer, Voltage and current is induced through PURELY THE CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELD.

Compare this to smart phone recharging plates or toothbrush rechargers that ALSO use wireless energy transfer to charge up the batteries. Only in the case of PEMF, it is your CELLS that are getting charged.

For Optimal Recharging you want to use LOW frequencies from 0-50 Hz in the natural range of the earth, rapid rise and fall waveforms to create MAXIMUM induction, LARGE coils with tightly wound pure copper to give a STRONG magnetic flux and penetration depth, and Lower and safe intensities that gently nudge the body into healing itself.

The next videos are going to explore Maxwell's equations, light, resonance and finally MAGNETIC RESONANCE energy transfer. This is the one thing we have not really talked about yet.

**-----**

Fourier Series To Create a Squarewave

Fourier Series To Create a Squarewave

As you carry the Fourier series out to infinity you get an ideal squarewave, but that is an engineering impossibility. The best you can do in practice is to create a GOOD approximation by expanding the series out as far as possible. Using the first four expansions gives a VERY good approximation.

I did a signal analysis on the OMI as one example and it appeared to be a very crude Fourier series creating a CRUDE squarewave (perhaps only first two iterations the bare minimum to even qualify as the first term is a sine wave.

Cheaper PEMF devices like the OMI use maybe two expansions and the quality of the signal is POOR because of thin copper wires and poor wiring.

The iMRS 2000 and other quality PEMF devices use not only more

Image below shows a squarewave created from the first four terms of the fourier seriers needed to generate a squarewave. The more terms you use, the better, but there are engineering limits.

Harmonics... Using More Terms and properly wound coils gives you MORE harmonics and a broader frequency range.

http://astro.pas.rochester.edu/~aquillen/phy103/Lectures/D_Fourier.pdf