Nova Video on the Quantum World... Good

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBrsWPCp_rs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBrsWPCp_rs

## Integral Paradigm Needed to Understand Quantum Mechanics

Quantum so strange because it is taught within the Materialistic paradigm of science.

Conceptual paradigm of Integtal

Validity of QM implied by this framework

There is an ultimate reality, brahman, satchidananda, the divine , God, Tao etc..

Ineffable but relates to the world in a 3-fold manner...

Our world is evolutionary, and evolution presupposes involution - Supermind.

Supermind manifests the world.

One Self

Lose awareness that All are One... Concerned with Forming Ideas, though we get glimpses, intuitions, spiritual experiences, we do not stay centered in spirit.

Formative Force (LIFE)... Life itself

Evolution.. Starts with Aggregrates... How to create a Form that occupies space with particles that occupy no Multitude of individuals but no life force to give them a form, so we end up with a multitude of formless individuals. Physicists talk about as fundamental particles.

Evolution not a reversal of involution.

Particles individually occupy no space... Bohr

Conceptual paradigm of Integtal

Validity of QM implied by this framework

There is an ultimate reality, brahman, satchidananda, the divine , God, Tao etc..

Ineffable but relates to the world in a 3-fold manner...

Our world is evolutionary, and evolution presupposes involution - Supermind.

Supermind manifests the world.

One Self

**Infinite Quality (Supermind) --> Expressive Ideas (Mind/Veil) --> Formative Force (Life) --> Finite Form**Lose awareness that All are One... Concerned with Forming Ideas, though we get glimpses, intuitions, spiritual experiences, we do not stay centered in spirit.

Formative Force (LIFE)... Life itself

Evolution.. Starts with Aggregrates... How to create a Form that occupies space with particles that occupy no Multitude of individuals but no life force to give them a form, so we end up with a multitude of formless individuals. Physicists talk about as fundamental particles.

Evolution not a reversal of involution.

Particles individually occupy no space... Bohr

How do you get particles that occupy no space to occupy space into a stable form that doesn't collapse.

If only an attractive force, then all the electrons in the atom would sit on top of each other and would not occupy space.

Need a repulsive force to

Clever trick of nature... Involves a difficult idea.

Objective indefiniteness or fuzziness, indeterminacy which physicists have not completely come to terms with yet...

Describe electrons with probability distribution (like gaussian curve) and that is a fundmental property needed for objects with no spacial dimension (points) to actually occupy space!

A fuzzy momentum makes a fuzzy position more fuzzy, attractive force of nucleus/proton, makes electron less fuzzy... Need a balance... could be unstable equilibrium, how to make stable?

To make equilibrium stable, you need an inequality in Heisenbergs relationship which controls the fuzziness of these two relations.

What is the proper way of dealing with a fuzzy quantity?

Assign probabilities to the possible outcomes of this measurement quantity.

That is precisely why quantum mechanics is in its formalism is a probability calculus and why the events (things to which probabilities are assigned) are measurement outcomes.

Probabilities in classical are a lack of knowledge. Subjective uncertainty that makes us talk about probabilities.

QM probabilities arise because of this objective indefiniteness or fuzziness.

Moden physics tells us how the probabilties depend on measurement outcomes

We can predict, but not explain how..

If the force working in the world is an infinite force there

Self imposed contraints sets the stage for evolution... QM sets the stage for evolution.

Why the constraints have the forms that they do, why the Laws of physics have the forms that they do..

Apply probability calculus to 2 experiments that give us key insigts as to the nature of space and time and also substance (matter).

25:00

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pga95d8Fiww

A --> C

B ---> D

? or is it A ---> D and B--->C

No identity tags in QM

When we ask which is which, but meaningless question.

It is meaningless because we make a wrong assumption.

Let's try another approach...

Ini

Initially there is one thing (A) which manifest itself with C and D properties.

In the end there is still the same one thing that manifests itself with A and B properties.

Seeing same object in two places if ONLY difference is location.

Properties of objects belong to substances..

Subject Predicate

This is doing this...

Properties of things are projections

Determined by thinking and

Substance and property

Substance can ONLY be a subject.

A substance has a kind of independent existence that we cannot attribute to a property.

A property cannot exist without being a property of something

There is only one substance, the one becomes many by assuming a bunch of different properties including positions.

Completing their descent into evolution, the many again become one.

If only an attractive force, then all the electrons in the atom would sit on top of each other and would not occupy space.

Need a repulsive force to

Clever trick of nature... Involves a difficult idea.

Objective indefiniteness or fuzziness, indeterminacy which physicists have not completely come to terms with yet...

Describe electrons with probability distribution (like gaussian curve) and that is a fundmental property needed for objects with no spacial dimension (points) to actually occupy space!

A fuzzy momentum makes a fuzzy position more fuzzy, attractive force of nucleus/proton, makes electron less fuzzy... Need a balance... could be unstable equilibrium, how to make stable?

To make equilibrium stable, you need an inequality in Heisenbergs relationship which controls the fuzziness of these two relations.

What is the proper way of dealing with a fuzzy quantity?

Assign probabilities to the possible outcomes of this measurement quantity.

That is precisely why quantum mechanics is in its formalism is a probability calculus and why the events (things to which probabilities are assigned) are measurement outcomes.

Probabilities in classical are a lack of knowledge. Subjective uncertainty that makes us talk about probabilities.

QM probabilities arise because of this objective indefiniteness or fuzziness.

Moden physics tells us how the probabilties depend on measurement outcomes

We can predict, but not explain how..

If the force working in the world is an infinite force there

Self imposed contraints sets the stage for evolution... QM sets the stage for evolution.

Why the constraints have the forms that they do, why the Laws of physics have the forms that they do..

Apply probability calculus to 2 experiments that give us key insigts as to the nature of space and time and also substance (matter).

25:00

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pga95d8Fiww

A --> C

B ---> D

? or is it A ---> D and B--->C

No identity tags in QM

When we ask which is which, but meaningless question.

It is meaningless because we make a wrong assumption.

Let's try another approach...

Ini

Initially there is one thing (A) which manifest itself with C and D properties.

In the end there is still the same one thing that manifests itself with A and B properties.

Seeing same object in two places if ONLY difference is location.

Properties of objects belong to substances..

Subject Predicate

This is doing this...

Properties of things are projections

Determined by thinking and

Substance and property

Substance can ONLY be a subject.

A substance has a kind of independent existence that we cannot attribute to a property.

A property cannot exist without being a property of something

There is only one substance, the one becomes many by assuming a bunch of different properties including positions.

Completing their descent into evolution, the many again become one.

## Quantum Computing and Quantum Information

Quantum mechanics is easy once the physics is taken out.

Quantum Information.

It is a generalization of probability theory at a level beneath physics.

To describe the state of a system (you have a system that can be in a bunch of different distinguishable states, then it can also be in a superposition of those states.

A superposition is sorta like not knowing what state a system is in, but it is NOT THAT.

Because instead of assigning a probability to each state in a system, you have to assign each possibility an AMPLITUDE... These Amplitudes are complex numbers... They can be positive or negative or i or -i.

You can use the amplitude to calculate what is the probability that you'll see a certain outcome if you make a measurement of the system. So measurement is a special thing you have to do that converts these amplitudes into probabilities.

You can the probability of an outcome by taking the squared absolute value of its amplitude.

But if you are not looking at the system , it evolves in time as a gigantic list of these amplitudes.

Which behave very differently then conventional probabilities.

You have one amplitude for every possible configuration the system can be in.

For example, if you had a system with a 1000 interacting particles, each of which can be in one of two configurations, spinning up or down... 2^1000 amplitudes.... more than 10^300, more than atoms in the universes.

Quantum mechanics is making a Staggering claim about the world.

It has to do a hell of a lot more work than you would have thought.

If something happens to the particles, you have to scratch the list and get a new set...

If you try to simulate a quantum system classically, the time needed for the simulation increases exponentially.

Huge practical problem.

Feynamnn and Deutch.

Why not build a computer that themselves can exploit this amazing quantum mechanical superposition.

This is a quantum computer. What would it be useful for... Useful for simulating quantum mechanics.

Quantum Simulations.. Superconductivity, Higher effeciency solar cells, early universe, materials, biomolecules,

Any problem in chemistry or physics with a large interacting quantum system

Amplitude is HALF of the Bra-Ket < | | >

Actual Probability depends on the Action of the Bra < |

Consciousness/thought choreographs superpositions...

Visualization in terms of qubits, all possible pictures.

Morphogenetic fields are quantum amplitudes.

Quantum Information.

**It is probability theory with a minus sign. Nature seems to prefer it that way.**

If you ask a mathematician to come up with a probability theory with complex number or negative signs, quantum mechanics results.It is a generalization of probability theory at a level beneath physics.

To describe the state of a system (you have a system that can be in a bunch of different distinguishable states, then it can also be in a superposition of those states.

A superposition is sorta like not knowing what state a system is in, but it is NOT THAT.

Because instead of assigning a probability to each state in a system, you have to assign each possibility an AMPLITUDE... These Amplitudes are complex numbers... They can be positive or negative or i or -i.

You can use the amplitude to calculate what is the probability that you'll see a certain outcome if you make a measurement of the system. So measurement is a special thing you have to do that converts these amplitudes into probabilities.

You can the probability of an outcome by taking the squared absolute value of its amplitude.

But if you are not looking at the system , it evolves in time as a gigantic list of these amplitudes.

Which behave very differently then conventional probabilities.

You have one amplitude for every possible configuration the system can be in.

For example, if you had a system with a 1000 interacting particles, each of which can be in one of two configurations, spinning up or down... 2^1000 amplitudes.... more than 10^300, more than atoms in the universes.

Quantum mechanics is making a Staggering claim about the world.

It has to do a hell of a lot more work than you would have thought.

If something happens to the particles, you have to scratch the list and get a new set...

If you try to simulate a quantum system classically, the time needed for the simulation increases exponentially.

Huge practical problem.

Feynamnn and Deutch.

Why not build a computer that themselves can exploit this amazing quantum mechanical superposition.

This is a quantum computer. What would it be useful for... Useful for simulating quantum mechanics.

Quantum Simulations.. Superconductivity, Higher effeciency solar cells, early universe, materials, biomolecules,

Any problem in chemistry or physics with a large interacting quantum system

Amplitude is HALF of the Bra-Ket < | | >

Actual Probability depends on the Action of the Bra < |

Consciousness/thought choreographs superpositions...

Visualization in terms of qubits, all possible pictures.

Morphogenetic fields are quantum amplitudes.

real numbers adding up to 1... You can change it in time by applying a stochastic matrix.

Looks similar, but

positive real vs complex +/-

1 norm

Conservation of norms... Conservation of probability and probability amplitudes.

1 norm is sum of the entries.

2 norm is the sum of the absolute value squared of the entries.

Quantum computer is NOT a massively parallel classical computer.

Unfortunately not that simple.

Yes, you CAN form a quantum superposition of all possible answers and outcomes, but the problem is at some point you have to make a measurement. You need to look at your computer to get an answer out.

If you measure you'll just get a random answer.

double slit... paths can cancel...

Is there any problem in which you can do that, if you do not know the right answer?

Measurement is a special process in quantum mechanics.

Forces system to classical.

Have to keep it isolated.

Anything that carrys away information about the state of the computer, measures the computer, so have to keep quantum computer incredibly isolated. Cause computer to lose its quantum coherence.

Scaling is so hard because of unwanted interactions between the quantum computer and external environment, prematurely measuring the quantum state.

If quantum computers NOT possible, we need to rewrite our physics books.

Error correcting and shielding... more engineering problem...

How long can you keep a qubit intact... that has improved tremendously.

Grovers Algorithm - abstract structure of 2^N possible solutions, then even a quantum computer needs ~2^N/2 or the SQRT... Quantum mechanics is the square root of classical mechanics.

Get a square root advantage but not better...

Quantum adiabatic algorithm - quantum version of optimization with soap bubbles.

Superconducting joesphson qubits

No evidence D-wave can solve problems faster than classical computer.

Need higher quality qubits.

Is adibiatic problem

Eigenvalue gap... expontenially small, than have to run for an exponentially amount of time.

Need a reasonablly large eigenvalue gap.

Is a dirty bomb a nuclear bomb... yes explodes and leaves nuclear waste but not the same thing as a nuclear bomb...

Black Hole Information Problem

Rules of quantum mechanics say everything is time reversible, information/memory cannot be lost.

How does information make it back out of the black...

Black hole complementarity.... just think about event horizon... interior is just dual to that... pixels and voxels.

We know black holes radiate... Hawking Radiation.

Route photons and

10^67 years to radiate away.

Right at event horizon space and time break down.. not singularity.

Cannot solve in 10^67 need 2^10^67

Prove P not equal NP

Prove that not even quantum computers can solve NP problems

Build a scalable quantum computer

Clarify whether all of known physics can be simulated on a quantum computer

Use computational complexity to make prgress towards a quantum theory of gravity.

Looks similar, but

positive real vs complex +/-

1 norm

Conservation of norms... Conservation of probability and probability amplitudes.

1 norm is sum of the entries.

2 norm is the sum of the absolute value squared of the entries.

Quantum computer is NOT a massively parallel classical computer.

Unfortunately not that simple.

Yes, you CAN form a quantum superposition of all possible answers and outcomes, but the problem is at some point you have to make a measurement. You need to look at your computer to get an answer out.

If you measure you'll just get a random answer.

double slit... paths can cancel...

**Goal is to choreograph your pattern of interference, such that for each wrong answer all the contributions to cancel... right answer all contributions add.**

Advantage only comes from choreographing the patterns of constructive and destructive interference.Advantage only comes from choreographing the patterns of constructive and destructive interference.

Is there any problem in which you can do that, if you do not know the right answer?

Measurement is a special process in quantum mechanics.

Forces system to classical.

Have to keep it isolated.

Anything that carrys away information about the state of the computer, measures the computer, so have to keep quantum computer incredibly isolated. Cause computer to lose its quantum coherence.

Scaling is so hard because of unwanted interactions between the quantum computer and external environment, prematurely measuring the quantum state.

If quantum computers NOT possible, we need to rewrite our physics books.

Error correcting and shielding... more engineering problem...

How long can you keep a qubit intact... that has improved tremendously.

Grovers Algorithm - abstract structure of 2^N possible solutions, then even a quantum computer needs ~2^N/2 or the SQRT... Quantum mechanics is the square root of classical mechanics.

Get a square root advantage but not better...

Quantum adiabatic algorithm - quantum version of optimization with soap bubbles.

Superconducting joesphson qubits

No evidence D-wave can solve problems faster than classical computer.

Need higher quality qubits.

Is adibiatic problem

Eigenvalue gap... expontenially small, than have to run for an exponentially amount of time.

Need a reasonablly large eigenvalue gap.

Is a dirty bomb a nuclear bomb... yes explodes and leaves nuclear waste but not the same thing as a nuclear bomb...

Black Hole Information Problem

Rules of quantum mechanics say everything is time reversible, information/memory cannot be lost.

How does information make it back out of the black...

Black hole complementarity.... just think about event horizon... interior is just dual to that... pixels and voxels.

We know black holes radiate... Hawking Radiation.

Route photons and

10^67 years to radiate away.

Right at event horizon space and time break down.. not singularity.

Cannot solve in 10^67 need 2^10^67

Prove P not equal NP

Prove that not even quantum computers can solve NP problems

Build a scalable quantum computer

Clarify whether all of known physics can be simulated on a quantum computer

Use computational complexity to make prgress towards a quantum theory of gravity.

***WORK IN PROGRESS - Check Back Later

## Quantum Field Theory and Interconnectedness

What are we made of? What are the fundamental building blocks of nature?

First modern picture we had was periodic table of elements. One of most iconic images in science.

If you are a chemist, this is as good as it gets. Things on left go bang in water, things on right do not do anything. Any chemists? lol. Silly way to organize nature. We know this is not the end of the story. These are NOT the fundamental building blocks.

JJ Thompson, first to show others the electron. Rutherford gave first complete picture of nucleus and electrons. Nucleus contains protons and neutrons. In the 1970s we learned the protons and neutrons not fundamental. Up quark and down quark for no good reason.

Never discovered anything smaller than the electron and nothing smaller than the quarks. Everything we see in the world, is the same 3 particles with slightly different arrangements repeated over and over.

Spirit is like democritus.. like lego bricks upon which everything is made.

The problem is , its a lie. Its a white lie.

The best theories we have are not the 2 quark particles and the one electron particle. In fact the best theories we have in physics don't rely on particles at all.

First modern picture we had was periodic table of elements. One of most iconic images in science.

If you are a chemist, this is as good as it gets. Things on left go bang in water, things on right do not do anything. Any chemists? lol. Silly way to organize nature. We know this is not the end of the story. These are NOT the fundamental building blocks.

JJ Thompson, first to show others the electron. Rutherford gave first complete picture of nucleus and electrons. Nucleus contains protons and neutrons. In the 1970s we learned the protons and neutrons not fundamental. Up quark and down quark for no good reason.

Never discovered anything smaller than the electron and nothing smaller than the quarks. Everything we see in the world, is the same 3 particles with slightly different arrangements repeated over and over.

Spirit is like democritus.. like lego bricks upon which everything is made.

The problem is , its a lie. Its a white lie.

The best theories we have are not the 2 quark particles and the one electron particle. In fact the best theories we have in physics don't rely on particles at all.

The fundamental building blocks of nature are some much more nebulous and abstract.. Fluidlike substances that are spread throughout the entire universe and ripple in strange and interesting ways.

These fluid-like substances we have a name for - We call them fields. Not fields of a farmer.

Physicists have a very different picture in their minds when they think about fields.

Field - Something that is spread everywhere throughout the universe. Something that takes a particular value at every point in space and that value can change with time, like a fluid that ripples and sways through the universe. Not a new idea. Dates back 200 years. Michael Faraday electric and magnetic fields. He built an intuition which we now call the electric and magnetic field - invisible objects through space. Big and radical step. One of the most revolutionary and radical ideas in the history of science, that these electric and magnetic fields exist.

We all played these games as kids… This force, this pressure that pushes against the magnets… Something special with this weird feeling you get between magnets. Even though you cannot see anything, Farday said there is something real and physical there. He called it lines of force which we now call the magnetic field. Faraday demonstrated induction. Make something move without touching it. The field is real, you communicate using the field (cellphone). Not just particles, but something more subtle called fields. He was first to suggest that these ripples or waves of magnetic and electric field is what we call light. Took 50 years for Maxwell and Hertz to confirm.

This idea of fields is much more important then Faraday realized and it has taken us 150 years to appreciate this. In the 1920s we realized the common sense idea of the universe was VERY different than the commonsense ideas that Newton and Galileo handed down to us centuries before. In the 1920's people like Schrod and Heisen, showed us the world is much more mysterious and counterintuitive than we thought it would ever be, this is the theory we now know as Quantum Mechanics.

One of the punchlines of quantum mechanics is that energy is not continuous, energy is always parceled up, into some little discrete lump which is what the word quantum means. The real fun begins when you combines things that are discrete with Faradays idea of fields which are much more continuous and smooth objects which are waving and osclliitating in space. The idea of trying to combine these two together is what is called quantum field theory. And here's the implication of quantum field theory.

The first is what happens for the electric and magnetic field. Farday taught us and Maxwell later, that waves of the electric and magnetic field are called light. When you apply quantum mechanics to this, what you find is these light waves are not as smooth and continuous as they appear. So if you could look closely at light waves, you'll find they are made of little particles that we call the photon. The magic of this idea is that that same principle applies to every single other particle in the universe.

So there is spread everywhere throughout the universe, something called the electron field. Like a fluid that fills the universe. The ripples or waves of this fluid get tied into little bundles of energy by the rules of quantum mechanics and those bundles of energy are what we call the particle, the electron. All the electrons in your body are NOT fundamental - all the electrons in your body are waves of the same underlying field. And we are all connected to each other.

It's like the waves on the ocean all belong to the same underlying ocean. The electrons in your body are ripples of the same field as the electrons in my body.

There is more than this… There is also in this universe, two quark fields and the ripples of these two quark fields give rise to the up and down quark.

And the same is true for every other kind of particle in the universe. There are fields that underly everything and what we think of as particles aren't really particles at all, they are waves of these fields tied up into little bundles of energy.

There are no particles in the universe, the basic building blocks of the universe are these fluid like substances that we call fields.

Where does this vision take us, that we are not made of particles but rather we are made of fields and what we can do with that so we can best understand the universe around us.

These fluid-like substances we have a name for - We call them fields. Not fields of a farmer.

Physicists have a very different picture in their minds when they think about fields.

Field - Something that is spread everywhere throughout the universe. Something that takes a particular value at every point in space and that value can change with time, like a fluid that ripples and sways through the universe. Not a new idea. Dates back 200 years. Michael Faraday electric and magnetic fields. He built an intuition which we now call the electric and magnetic field - invisible objects through space. Big and radical step. One of the most revolutionary and radical ideas in the history of science, that these electric and magnetic fields exist.

We all played these games as kids… This force, this pressure that pushes against the magnets… Something special with this weird feeling you get between magnets. Even though you cannot see anything, Farday said there is something real and physical there. He called it lines of force which we now call the magnetic field. Faraday demonstrated induction. Make something move without touching it. The field is real, you communicate using the field (cellphone). Not just particles, but something more subtle called fields. He was first to suggest that these ripples or waves of magnetic and electric field is what we call light. Took 50 years for Maxwell and Hertz to confirm.

This idea of fields is much more important then Faraday realized and it has taken us 150 years to appreciate this. In the 1920s we realized the common sense idea of the universe was VERY different than the commonsense ideas that Newton and Galileo handed down to us centuries before. In the 1920's people like Schrod and Heisen, showed us the world is much more mysterious and counterintuitive than we thought it would ever be, this is the theory we now know as Quantum Mechanics.

One of the punchlines of quantum mechanics is that energy is not continuous, energy is always parceled up, into some little discrete lump which is what the word quantum means. The real fun begins when you combines things that are discrete with Faradays idea of fields which are much more continuous and smooth objects which are waving and osclliitating in space. The idea of trying to combine these two together is what is called quantum field theory. And here's the implication of quantum field theory.

The first is what happens for the electric and magnetic field. Farday taught us and Maxwell later, that waves of the electric and magnetic field are called light. When you apply quantum mechanics to this, what you find is these light waves are not as smooth and continuous as they appear. So if you could look closely at light waves, you'll find they are made of little particles that we call the photon. The magic of this idea is that that same principle applies to every single other particle in the universe.

So there is spread everywhere throughout the universe, something called the electron field. Like a fluid that fills the universe. The ripples or waves of this fluid get tied into little bundles of energy by the rules of quantum mechanics and those bundles of energy are what we call the particle, the electron. All the electrons in your body are NOT fundamental - all the electrons in your body are waves of the same underlying field. And we are all connected to each other.

It's like the waves on the ocean all belong to the same underlying ocean. The electrons in your body are ripples of the same field as the electrons in my body.

There is more than this… There is also in this universe, two quark fields and the ripples of these two quark fields give rise to the up and down quark.

And the same is true for every other kind of particle in the universe. There are fields that underly everything and what we think of as particles aren't really particles at all, they are waves of these fields tied up into little bundles of energy.

There are no particles in the universe, the basic building blocks of the universe are these fluid like substances that we call fields.

Where does this vision take us, that we are not made of particles but rather we are made of fields and what we can do with that so we can best understand the universe around us.

## The Vacuum and Beyond

The Vacuum

Take a box and take all the stuff out, all the particles, all the atoms, and what you are left with is a pure vacuum. Computer simulation of vacuum using the standard model. Computer simulation of nothing.

The vacuum is the simplest thing you can invision and it is definitely not a dull and boring place. The fields are still there and the fields are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics.

And there is a principle in quantum mechanics called the heisenberg uncertainty principle which says you are not allowed to sit still and the field has to obey this. Field is bubbling and fluctuations. Quantum vacuum fluctuations very complicated.

We can measure… The Casimir force (more of this stuff on outside than inside). Referring to fluctuations.

Challenge --> this is the simplest thing we can imagine in the entire universe and its complicated, astonishingly complicated. It doesn't get easier. Single particle more complicated. Mathematics we use to describe these fields is substantially harder than that which arises in any other area of math or science.

There is a list of the six hardest problems in mathematics, which are considered to be the six hardest problems.

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap

Riemann hypothesis

P vs NP

One is to take from first principles to get quantum fluctuations.

Mathematics being challenging.

When

Magnetic Moment - speed of precession in magnetic field.

12 or 13 significant figures.

From first principles.

Difficulty comes when vacuum fluctuations get wilder and wilder.

We should be able to figure out mass of proton from first principles.

But only 3%. 40 years worlds most powerful computers, cannot solve.

We have these theories of physics, the best we have ever developed, but ones we understand the least.

We are all made of quantum fields and the best minds in the world don't really understand them.

Not many quantum fields in the universe that science knows of…

Electron fields, up quark field, down quark field, neutrino

Above and below us… not sociable, don't interact.

For some reason nature has reproduced 3 sets of them.

We understand why they come in a group of 4, why they have the properties they do.

Every single thing we have ever seen can be made out of the 12 fields of quarks and leptons.

These 12 fields interact with each other through four forces.

2 forces are familiar electricity and magnetism and the other two only act the small scales of a nucleus.

Strong nuclear force holds the quarks together inside protons and neutrons,

and there is the weak nuclear force which is responsible for radioactive decay and among other things, making the sun shine.

Each of these forces is associated with a field, Faraday taught us about the electromagnetic field, field associated to strong force called gluon field and a field associated with weak nuclear force called the W and Z boson field.

And there is also a field associated with gravity which was really Einsteins great insight into the world.

The field of gravity turns out to be space and time itself, and if you have never heard that before, that is the world's shortest introduction to general relativity.

12 matter fields and 4 force fields and the world we live in is these combination of the 16 fields all interacting together in interesting ways.

This is what you think the universe is like, it is filled with these fields, fluid like substances. 12 matter, 4 forces. One of the matter fields starts to oscillate and ripple. Say the electron field starts to wave up and down because say there are electrons there, that will kick off one of the other fields, say the electromagnetic field which in turn will oscillate and ripple and light is emitted. At some point it will start interacting with the quark field which will in turn oscillate and ripple and the picture we end up with is this harmonious dance with all these fields, interlocking each other, swaying, moving this way and that way.

This is the picture we have with the fundamental laws of physics.

We have a theory that underlies all this, to put it simply it is the pinnacle of science. Its the greatest theory we have ever come up with, but it has the most rubbish name, we call it the Standard Model.

There is one more field introduced in the 60's by Peter Higgs, in the 1970s it became an integral part of how we thought about the universe. But no direct

Make the higgs field ripple so we see a particle

Lasts 10^-22

Electric charge and mass is a statement of how their fields interact with other fields.

Electric charge is a statement of how the electron field interacts with the electromagnetic field.

And the property of its mass is how it interacts with the higgs field.

Higgs Very big deal. This is what is responsible for the meaning of mass in the Universe.

Final piece of the jigsaw. We Have been waiting.

50 years we have been waiting and behaves exactly like we predicted.

This equation correctly predicts the result of every single experiment we've even done in science.

42:00

This is our current limit of knowledge

Take a box and take all the stuff out, all the particles, all the atoms, and what you are left with is a pure vacuum. Computer simulation of vacuum using the standard model. Computer simulation of nothing.

The vacuum is the simplest thing you can invision and it is definitely not a dull and boring place. The fields are still there and the fields are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics.

And there is a principle in quantum mechanics called the heisenberg uncertainty principle which says you are not allowed to sit still and the field has to obey this. Field is bubbling and fluctuations. Quantum vacuum fluctuations very complicated.

We can measure… The Casimir force (more of this stuff on outside than inside). Referring to fluctuations.

Challenge --> this is the simplest thing we can imagine in the entire universe and its complicated, astonishingly complicated. It doesn't get easier. Single particle more complicated. Mathematics we use to describe these fields is substantially harder than that which arises in any other area of math or science.

There is a list of the six hardest problems in mathematics, which are considered to be the six hardest problems.

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap

Riemann hypothesis

P vs NP

One is to take from first principles to get quantum fluctuations.

Mathematics being challenging.

When

Magnetic Moment - speed of precession in magnetic field.

12 or 13 significant figures.

From first principles.

Difficulty comes when vacuum fluctuations get wilder and wilder.

We should be able to figure out mass of proton from first principles.

But only 3%. 40 years worlds most powerful computers, cannot solve.

We have these theories of physics, the best we have ever developed, but ones we understand the least.

We are all made of quantum fields and the best minds in the world don't really understand them.

Not many quantum fields in the universe that science knows of…

Electron fields, up quark field, down quark field, neutrino

Above and below us… not sociable, don't interact.

For some reason nature has reproduced 3 sets of them.

We understand why they come in a group of 4, why they have the properties they do.

Every single thing we have ever seen can be made out of the 12 fields of quarks and leptons.

These 12 fields interact with each other through four forces.

2 forces are familiar electricity and magnetism and the other two only act the small scales of a nucleus.

Strong nuclear force holds the quarks together inside protons and neutrons,

and there is the weak nuclear force which is responsible for radioactive decay and among other things, making the sun shine.

Each of these forces is associated with a field, Faraday taught us about the electromagnetic field, field associated to strong force called gluon field and a field associated with weak nuclear force called the W and Z boson field.

And there is also a field associated with gravity which was really Einsteins great insight into the world.

The field of gravity turns out to be space and time itself, and if you have never heard that before, that is the world's shortest introduction to general relativity.

12 matter fields and 4 force fields and the world we live in is these combination of the 16 fields all interacting together in interesting ways.

This is what you think the universe is like, it is filled with these fields, fluid like substances. 12 matter, 4 forces. One of the matter fields starts to oscillate and ripple. Say the electron field starts to wave up and down because say there are electrons there, that will kick off one of the other fields, say the electromagnetic field which in turn will oscillate and ripple and light is emitted. At some point it will start interacting with the quark field which will in turn oscillate and ripple and the picture we end up with is this harmonious dance with all these fields, interlocking each other, swaying, moving this way and that way.

This is the picture we have with the fundamental laws of physics.

We have a theory that underlies all this, to put it simply it is the pinnacle of science. Its the greatest theory we have ever come up with, but it has the most rubbish name, we call it the Standard Model.

There is one more field introduced in the 60's by Peter Higgs, in the 1970s it became an integral part of how we thought about the universe. But no direct

Make the higgs field ripple so we see a particle

Lasts 10^-22

Electric charge and mass is a statement of how their fields interact with other fields.

Electric charge is a statement of how the electron field interacts with the electromagnetic field.

And the property of its mass is how it interacts with the higgs field.

Higgs Very big deal. This is what is responsible for the meaning of mass in the Universe.

Final piece of the jigsaw. We Have been waiting.

50 years we have been waiting and behaves exactly like we predicted.

This equation correctly predicts the result of every single experiment we've even done in science.

42:00

This is our current limit of knowledge