When trying to understanding the properties of waves, specifically in our discussion, pulsed electromagnetic waves, the final element to consider is the geometry or waveform.
Using a radio as an analogy, the intensity is the volume, the frequency (ie 101.5 FM) is the radio station, the timing is how long you leave the radio on (and what time of day you play it) and the waveform would correspond to the actual shape of the signal which gives rise to the music you hear. The frequency (in FM radio) is the carrier signal hence the name FM (frequency modulated). In AM radio the amplitude is modulated, hence AM.
The waveform is a combination of sines and cosines put together in many ways via fourier analysis to create just about any geometry.
So ALL the PEMF devices are based in sine wave waveforms, though the carrier waves can vary like the images to the left.
The question is, which waveform works best.
Below are the waveforms of the top PEMF therapy mats, the first one on the far left is the MRS 2000 (and QRS), the second is the Bemer 3000 and the 3rd a higher intensity unit on the market.
All three are based on sine waves, but which works best?
First of all the MRS 2000 and QRS Quantron have the longest history of research and have shown that the sawtooth carrier waveform provides the best magnetic resonance stimulation of all the waveforms. Also notice the deep valley between each pulse. This provides the maximum impulse or stimulation to the cells recharging them in the most powerful way.
(Pictured Below from left to right: MRS 2000 waveform, Bemer 3000 waveform and higher intensity unit on the market.)
Why a Sawtooth Pulse? (Part 1)
A Saw tooth pulse is thus composed of various sine vibrations and has a BROAD FREQUENCY SPECTRUM. The fundamental vibration has the same frequency as the pulse train. The following harmonics are frequencies representing a multiple of the fundamental mode, but as a rule they also have a decreasing amplitude (height).
If a structure such as a cell membrane oscillating with a sine wave vibration ( = oscillating circuit) is stimulated with a saw tooth pulse, ie., many individual sine waves of different amplitudes, the cell membrane will respond preferentially to a harmonic close to its natural frequency.
The great advantage of the saw tooth pulse in comparison with the individual sine pulse for the resonant effect lies precisely in this increased supply of oscillations.
Also, because the saw tooth pattern is very spiked, it has been found to produce strong electro-motive forces in the cells and tissues.
Saw tooth-shaped Waves: These electro-magnetic waves reach the body in saw tooth-shaped waves that are ideal for affecting the level of ion transport.
This is the saw tooth wave-shape in its schematic portrayal, in which it was presented for the patent registration. Only in this way of signaling, with the corresponding amplitudes, the desired “transport of ions” will be achieved. The quintessence of the 20 years of magnetic field research is found in this shape, and intensity of the impulse.
Why a Sawtooth Pulse? (Part 2)
A saw tooth waveform, which is composed of various sine wave vibrations, has the broadest frequency and amplitude (see next section)spectrum of ANY of the waveforms available. Here when talking about resonance we are referring to the fact that a saw tooth signal is composed of many sine wave pulses with a broad spectrum of frequencies which allow for greater cellular energization and stimulation through electromagnetic resonance.
The cell membrane can be thought of like an antenna (Actually this is not just an analogy as the cell membrane has electrical properties like an oscillating circuit). And each cell has a different resonant frequency, just like there are different radio stations on your radio.
If you "tune in" to the station, say 101.5 FM you will receive the signal and hear great music. If you dial 101.3, you will not hear anything or if you do it will be static.
A saw tooth is like a radio that will dial to the exact frequency needed. When you stimulate the cell membrane with its resonant frequency, the cell membrane will vibrate, increase its permeability (allowing for greater oxygenation and nutrient absorption) and further produce micro currents and increase the overall cell voltage (remember that PEMF is like a whole body battery recharger BUT you must have the proper resonant frequencies in order to charge the cellular potentials).
Other waveforms, like the simple sine wave are like having a radio tuner that only dials to whole numbers like 88, 89, ...103, 104, 105.
If you want 101.5 and only have 101 and 102 on your tuner, you will not hear the music... Understand?
And without resonance, the cells cannot be energized.
BUYER BEWARE: Some units on the market use simple sine waves and high intensities... THIS WILL NOT WORK AS WELL... Its not about intensity, its about resonance (ie... you could be right next to a radio station antenna -high intensity- but if your radio is not "tuned" to the station, you won't hear anything...)
Conclusion: In the battle of resonance versus intensity, resonance always wins...
Sawtooth and the Amplitude (or Intensity) Window
Not only do the cells respond to their inherent resonant frequency, but also to the amplitude of the signal. The is a range of amplitudes each cell responds to called the amplitude window.
Amplitude is just intensity. See the image to the left. Each one of the waves has the same frequency, but the amplitude is different.
Just like ocean waves can have varying amplitudes, so do sound waves and electromagnetic waves.
Within the cells, if the amplitude is too weak, there is no affect, if the amplitude is too strong it can be harmful.
I think a few examples will clarify both the frequency window (see our discussion on the adey window) as well as the amplitude window.
I will tie together all the ideas we have discussed (amplitude, frequency, timing and resonance) by relating these concepts to both human sight and hearing, both of which almost everyone can personally relate to.
Human Sight & Understanding Frequency, Resonance, Intensity & Timing
As humans, we are only able to "see" 3% of the electromagnetic spectrum between roughly 400 - 700 nanometer wavelength.
Some animals can see infrared and others like bees can see ultraviolet, but as humans we see only a small "window" of frequencies.
Our eyes resonate with only the frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, just as our cells resonate only with certain frequencies.
So the difference between the color blue and the color red is just a different frequency.
So what we call "light" is just the frequency "window" of the electromagnetic spectrum, which the human eye resonates to. Get It?
Now what about amplitude OR intensity?
Intensity (amplitude) would be the "brightness of the light". If the light is too dim we won't see it at all. If its too bright, it will hurt or even possibly blind us.
Similarly, the human cells cannot respond to an intensity that is too weak (or too dim) and can be hurt or damaged if it is too strong (or too intense).
So what about timing?
Timing is also important... We can tolerate a very bright light for short periods of time (i.e. look at the sun directly for a split second). Similarly, if we are in a dark room long enough we will start to "see" better as our eyes adjust to the darkness (pupils dilate).
So timing is important also with regards to the eyes and light sources.
Human Hearing and Understanding Frequency, Resonance, Intensity and Timing
Like Vision, the ears can only pick up a range of sound frequencies. But in the case of sound, we are dealing with a wave based on pressure differentials of the air around us (not electromagnetic waves).
The human ear (on the average person) can pick up frequencies in the range of 20 to 20,000 hertz (cycles per second). Frequencies lower or higher simply cannot be heard by most people (but some animals).
Low frequency sounds are your low bass notes (low pitch) and high frequencies would be your treble notes (high pitch).
That is the internal structure of the ear can "tune into" or resonate with frequencies in this spectrum.
Intensity (or amplitude) related to sound is simply volume or loudness.
If the volume is too low you won't hear anything, if it is too high you can damage your ears. Volume is measured in decibels (a logarithmic scale).
So as you can see in the image above, there is a quite a range of intensities our ears can pick up.
Timing is also important in that we can handle a loud noise for a short period but if we listen too long to loud rock concerts we can damage our ears. Similarly if we listen closely to faint noises we can pick them up...
I hope you have a better understanding of the amazing technology called PEMF therapy, why it is critical for human health and wellness and what type of PEMF device would work best (see Review Guide for final summary).
In conclusion we have shown that the human body is electrical in nature and needs PEMF for its survival just as much as food, water, oxygen and sleep.
As regards to Intensity, frequency, timing and waveform, we have shown that understanding and duplicating nature is the best approach and research confirms this line of reasoning.
We should seek devices within Nature's Intensities (less than 70 uT - microtesla). (AMPLITUDE WINDOW)
We should seek devices within the Earth's fundamental frequencies - confirmed by Adey to be the frequencies living cells respond to between 3 and 25 Hz (hertz). (FREQUENCY WINDOW)
We should seek devices that are adjusted to our circadian rhythms (different frequencies at different times)
And finally we should use a waveform that gives the widest spectrum of frequencies AND intensities within both the Amplitude and Frequency Windows.
The Sawtooth Waveform Accomplishes this most effectively.
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